One of these studies was a long term follow-up study of the prognostic utility of the BTA stat test from the University of Finland. The Finland researchers found out that BTA stat test is not only diagnostic, but seems also to have prognostic importance.
Therefore in patients with negative test results, especially in those with low grade tumours, the interval between follow-up cystoscopies could be safely prolonged.
The researcher group around Hung-yi Chiou, Taipei, Taiwan, found out that cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were significantly associated with the risk of urethelial cancer. Subjects with the hOGG1 Ser/Cys genotype have a significant increased urethelial cancer risk (OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.5-4.5). No significant association was observed between the polymorphism XPD Lys751Gln and the risk of urethelial cancer.
However, ever smokers with the XPD Lys/Lys genotype have a significant increased urethelial cancer risk (OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.2). The highest significant urethelial cancer risk (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.3) was found in ever smokers with the hOGG1 Ser/Cys and Cys/Cys genotypes.
Lioudmila Sitnikov from Worcester, MA, reported about there study of the RNA-binding protein IMP3 – a novel molecular marker predicts progression of superficial (Ta and T1) urothelial carcinomas of bladder.
The researchers of this group found out, that IMP3 is an independent prognostic marker that can be used at the time of initial diagnosis of superficial urothelial carcinomas to identify a group of patients with a high potential to develop progression and metastasis, and who might benefit from early therapy.
Another study from Los Angeles, CA, reported about the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic molecular marker of Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CAIX) in Bladder Cancer. Their conclusions are that CAIX is differentially expressed in non-invasive vs. invasive transitional cell carcinoma, low grade vs. high grade TCC, and primary tumor vs. metastasis.
CAIX is an important predictor for TCC recurrence, progression, and survival. Since CAIX expression is absent in normal urothelial cells and it is highly expressed in non-invasive low grade TCC, evaluation of CAIX in urinary sediment may be a useful adjunct to diagnostic cytology, and intravesical CAIX targeted therapy might be effective in these high CAIX-expressing tumors. Likewise, since metastatic tumors express high CAIX, evaluation of systemic CAIX targeted therapy as a therapeutic approach is warranted.
Kerstin Junker from the german group of researchers around Prof. Schubert, Jena, visualized their study about a new tumour marker for diagnosis of bladder cancer in urine – oncofetal Fibronectin.
They found out that FFN is a highly sensitive and specific quantitative biomarker and shows a higher sensitivity than cytology, BTAstat and NMP22. All invasive tumours were detected. In conclusion, their results have shown that oncofetal Fibronectin represents a new promising marker for the detection of bladder cancer in urine.